Introduction ::Guinea-BissauBackground:Since independence from Portugal in 1974, Guinea-Bissau has experienced considerable political and military upheaval. In 1980, a military coup established authoritarian dictator Joao Bernardo 'Nino' VIEIRA as president. Despite setting a path to a market economy and multiparty system, VIEIRA's regime was characterized by the suppression of political opposition and the purging of political rivals. Several coup attempts through the 1980s and early 1990s failed to unseat him. In 1994 VIEIRA was elected president in the country's first free elections. A military mutiny and resulting civil war in 1998 eventually led to VIEIRA's ouster in May 1999. In February 2000, a transitional government turned over power to opposition leader Kumba YALA after he was elected president in transparent polling. In September 2003, after only three years in office, YALA was overthrown in a bloodless military coup, and businessman Henrique ROSA was sworn in as interim president. In 2005, former President VIEIRA was re-elected president pledging to pursue economic development and national reconciliation; he was assassinated in March 2009. Malam Bacai SANHA was elected in an emergency election held in June 2009, but he passed away in January 2012 from an existing illness. A military coup in April 2012 prevented Guinea-Bissau's second-round presidential election - to determine SANHA's successor - from taking place.Geography ::Guinea-BissauLocation:Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and SenegalGeographic coordinates:12 00 N, 15 00 WArea:total: 36,125 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 138land: 28,120 sq kmwater: 8,005 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly less than three times the size of ConnecticutLand boundaries:total: 724 kmborder countries: Guinea 386 km, Senegal 338 kmCoastline:350 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmexclusive economic zone: 200 nmClimate:tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan windsTerrain:mostly low coastal plain rising to savanna in eastElevation extremes:lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 mhighest point: unnamed elevation in the eastern part of the country 300 mNatural resources:fish, timber, phosphates, bauxite, clay, granite, limestone, unexploited deposits of petroleumLand use:arable land: 8.3%permanent crops: 6.92%other: 84.78% (2011)Irrigated land:225.6 sq km (2003)Total renewable water resources:31 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 0.18 cu km/yr (18%/6%/76%)per capita: 135.7 cu m/yr (2005)Natural hazards:hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season; brush firesEnvironment - current issues:deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; overfishingEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlandssigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:this small country is swampy along its western coast and low-lying inlandPeople and Society ::Guinea-BissauNationality:noun: Bissau-Guinean(s)adjective: Bissau-GuineanEthnic groups:African 99% (includes Balanta 30%, Fula 20%, Manjaca 14%, Mandinga 13%, Papel 7%), European and mulatto less than 1%Languages:Portuguese (official), Crioulo, African languagesReligions:Muslim 50%, indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 10%Population:1,660,870 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 152Age structure:0-14 years: 40% (male 331,406/female 332,662)15-24 years: 20.2% (male 166,339/female 168,906)25-54 years: 31.9% (male 263,190/female 266,963)55-64 years: 4.7% (male 28,333/female 49,322)65 years and over: 3.2% (male 20,807/female 32,942) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 79.7 %youth dependency ratio: 74.5 %elderly dependency ratio: 5.2 %potential support ratio: 19.3 (2013)Median age:total: 19.7 yearsmale: 19.1 yearsfemale: 20.2 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:1.95% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 57Birth rate:34.28 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 31Death rate:14.77 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 5Net migration rate:0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 100Urbanization:urban population: 43.9% of total population (2011)rate of urbanization: 3.59% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:BISSAU (capital) 302,000 (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.58 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Maternal mortality rate:790 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 7Infant mortality rate:total: 92.66 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 5male: 102.42 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 82.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 49.5 yearscountry comparison to the world: 221male: 47.53 yearsfemale: 51.52 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:4.37 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 32Contraceptive prevalence rate:14% (2010)Health expenditures:8.5% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 52Physicians density:0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2008)Hospital bed density:0.96 beds/1,000 population (2009)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 91% of populationrural: 53% of populationtotal: 64% of populationunimproved:urban: 9% of populationrural: 47% of populationtotal: 36% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 44% of populationrural: 9% of populationtotal: 20% of populationunimproved:urban: 56% of populationrural: 91% of populationtotal: 80% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:2.5% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 27HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:22,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 75HIV/AIDS - deaths:1,200 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 64Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: very highfood or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fevervectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow feverwater contact disease: schistosomiasisanimal contact disease: rabies (2013)Obesity - adult prevalence rate:4.9% (2008)country comparison to the world: 159Children under the age of 5 years underweight:17.2% (2008)country comparison to the world: 43Education expenditures:NALiteracy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 55.3%male: 68.9%female: 42.1% (2011 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 9.5 years (2006)Child labor - children ages 5-14:total number: 226,316percentage: 57 % (2010 est.)Government ::Guinea-BissauCountry name:conventional long form: Republic of Guinea-Bissauconventional short form: Guinea-Bissaulocal long form: Republica da Guine-Bissaulocal short form: Guine-Bissauformer: Portuguese GuineaGovernment type:republicCapital:name: Bissaugeographic coordinates: 11 51 N, 15 35 Wtime difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:9 regions (regioes, singular - regiao); Bafata, Biombo, Bissau, Bolama, Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara, Tombali; note - Bolama may have been renamed Bolama-BijagosIndependence:24 September 1973 (declared); 10 September 1974 (from Portugal)National holiday:Independence Day, 24 September (1973)Constitution:16 May 1984; amended several timesLegal system:mixed legal system of civil law (influenced by the early French Civil Code) and customary lawInternational law organization participation:accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCtSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: [Transitional] President Manuel Serifo NHAMADJO (since 11 May 2012)note: in the aftermath of the April 2012 coup that deposed the government, an agreement was reached between ECOWAS mediators and the military junta to name NHAMADJO as transitional president with a one-year term; the transitional government has scheduled a presidential election for 24 November 2013head of government: [Transitional] Prime Minister Rui Duarte BARROS (since 16 May 2012)cabinet: NA(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 18 March 2012 with a runoff between the two leading candidates scheduled for 22 April 2012; prime minister appointed by the president after consultation with party leaders in the legislatureelection results: with no candidate receiving a minimum 50% of the vote in the first round, a runoff between the two leading candidates was scheduled for 22 April 2012; percent of vote (first round) - Carlos GOMES Junior 49.0%, Kumba YALA 23.4%, others 27.6%Legislative branch:unicameral National People's Assembly or Assembleia Nacional Popular (100 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)elections: last held on 16 November 2008 (legislative elections scheduled for 24 November 2013)election results: percent of vote by party - PAIGC 49.8%, PRS 25.3%, PRID 7.5%, PND 2.4%, AD 1.4%, other parties 13.6%; seats by party - PAIGC 67, PRS 28, PRID 3, PND 1, AD 1Judicial branch:highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of 9 judges and organized into Civil, Criminal, and Social and Administrative Disputes Chambers)note - the Supreme Court has both appellate and constitutional jurisdictionjudge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Higher Council of the Magistrate, a major government organ responsible for judge appointments, dismissals, and discipline of the judiciary; judges appointed by the president with tenure for lifesubordinate courts: Appeal Court; regional (first instance) courts; military courtPolitical parties and leaders:African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde or PAIGC [Rui Dia de SOUSA]Democratic Alliance or AD [Victor MANDINGA]New Democracy Party or PNDParty for Social Renewal or PRS [Sory DJALO]Republican Party for Independence and Development or PRID [Aristides GOMES]Political pressure groups and leaders:NAInternational organization participation:ACP, AfDB, AOSIS, AU (suspended), CPLP, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: none; note - Guinea-Bissau does not have official representation in Washington, DCDiplomatic representation from the US:the US Embassy suspended operations on 14 June 1998 in the midst of violent conflict between forces loyal to then President VIEIRA and military-led junta; the US Ambassador to Senegal is accredited to Guinea-BissauFlag description:two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical red band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed star centered in the red band; yellow symbolizes the sun; green denotes hope; red represents blood shed during the struggle for independence; the black star stands for African unitynote: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the flag design was heavily influenced by the Ghanaian flagNational anthem:name: ""Esta e a Nossa Patria Bem Amada"" (This Is Our Beloved Country)lyrics/music: Amilcar Lopes CABRAL/XIAO Henote: adopted 1974; a delegation from Portuguese Guinea visited China in 1963 and heard music by XIAO He; Amilcar Lopes CABRA, the leader of Guinea-Bissau's independence movement, asked the composer to create a piece that would inspire his people to struggle for independenceEconomy ::Guinea-BissauEconomy - overview:One of the poorest countries in the world, Guinea-Bissau's legal economy depends mainly on farming and fishing, but trafficking in narcotics is probably the most lucrative trade. The combination of limited economic prospects, a weak and faction-ridden government, and favorable geography have made this West African country a way station for drugs bound for Europe. Cashew crops have increased remarkably in recent years; low rainfall hindered cereals and other crops in 2011. Guinea-Bissau exports fish and seafood along with small amounts of peanuts, palm kernels, and timber. Rice is the major crop and staple food. However, intermittent fighting between Senegalese-backed government troops and a military junta destroyed much of the country's infrastructure and caused widespread damage to the economy in 1998; the civil war led to a 28% drop in GDP that year, with partial recovery in 1999-2002. In December 2003, the World Bank, IMF, and UNDP were forced to step in to provide emergency budgetary support in the amount of $107 million for 2004, representing over 80% of the total national budget. The government is successfully implementing a three-year $33 million extended credit arrangement with the IMF that runs through 2012. In December 2010 the World Bank and IMF announced support for $1.2 billion worth of debt relief. Guinea-Bissau made progress with debt relief in 2011 when members of the Paris Club opted to write-off much of the country''s obligations.GDP (purchasing power parity):$1.963 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 193$1.992 billion (2011 est.)$1.891 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$870 million (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:-1.5% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 2035.3% (2011 est.)3.5% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$1,200 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 212$1,300 (2011 est.)$1,200 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 86.3%government consumption: 12.9%investment in fixed capital: 12.9%investment in inventories: 0%exports of goods and services: 21.9%imports of goods and services: -33.9%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 55.7%industry: 13.2%services: 31% (2012 est.)Agriculture - products:rice, corn, beans, cassava (manioc), cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, cotton; timber; fishIndustries:agricultural products processing, beer, soft drinksIndustrial production growth rate:0.2% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 132Labor force:632,700 (2007)country comparison to the world: 153Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 82%industry and services: 18% (2000 est.)Unemployment rate:NA%Population below poverty line:NA%Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.9%highest 10%: 28% (2002)Budget:revenues: $129.1 millionexpenditures: $153.4 million (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:14.8% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 194Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-2.8% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 107Fiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):2.4% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 595% (2011 est.)Central bank discount rate:4.25% (31 December 2009)country comparison to the world: 794.75% (31 December 2008)Commercial bank prime lending rate:15% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 4215% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$266.1 million (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 170$308.7 million (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of broad money:$414.3 million (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 180$364.5 million (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$170.2 million (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 183$122.4 million (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$NACurrent account balance:-$151.4 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 72-$95.9 million (2011 est.)Exports:$139.8 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 186$244.6 million (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:fish, shrimp; cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, sawn lumberExports - partners:India 56%, Nigeria 28.4%, Togo 6.6% (2012)Imports:$237 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 203$327.6 million (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum productsImports - partners:Portugal 27.8%, Senegal 16.8%, US 7.1%, China 4.8%, Cuba 4.2% (2012)Debt - external:$1.095 billion (31 December 2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 159$941.5 million (31 December 2000 est.)Exchange rates:Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -510.53 (2012 est.)471.87 (2011 est.)495.28 (2010 est.)472.19 (2009)447.81 (2008)Energy ::Guinea-BissauElectricity - production:65 million kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 201Electricity - consumption:60.45 million kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 202Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 119Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 121Electricity - installed generating capacity:21,000 kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 195Electricity - from fossil fuels:100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 31Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 163Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 190Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 175Crude oil - production:0 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 178Crude oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 170Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 112Crude oil - proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 177Refined petroleum products - production:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 124Refined petroleum products - consumption:2,922 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 181Refined petroleum products - exports:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 125Refined petroleum products - imports:2,578 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 173Natural gas - production:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 181Natural gas - consumption:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 186Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 164Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 118Natural gas - proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 184Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:461,700 Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 179Communications ::Guinea-BissauTelephones - main lines in use:5,000 (2010)country comparison to the world: 210Telephones - mobile cellular:869,100 (2011)country comparison to the world: 157Telephone system:general assessment: small system including a combination of microwave radio relay, open-wire lines, radiotelephone, and mobile-cellular communicationsdomestic: fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 50 per 100 personsinternational: country code - 245 (2011)Broadcast media:1 state-owned TV station and a second station, Radio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP) Africa, is operated by Portuguese public broadcaster (RTP); 1 state-owned radio station, several private radio stations, and some community radio stations; multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)Internet country code:.gwInternet hosts:90 (2012)country comparison to the world: 211Internet users:37,100 (2009)country comparison to the world: 177Transportation ::Guinea-BissauAirports:8 (2013)country comparison to the world: 161Airports - with paved runways:total: 2over 3,047 m: 11,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 61,524 to 2,437 m: 1914 to 1,523 m: 2under 914 m:3 (2013)Roadways:total: 3,455 kmcountry comparison to the world: 161paved: 965 kmunpaved: 2,490 km (2002)Waterways:(rivers are navigable for some distance; many inlets and creeks give shallow-water access to much of interior) (2012)Ports and terminals:major seaport(s): Bissau, Buba, Cacheu, FarimMilitary ::Guinea-BissauMilitary branches:People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP): Army, Navy, National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional); Presidential Guard (2012)Military service age and obligation:18-25 years of age for selective compulsory military service (Air Force service is voluntary); 16 years of age or younger, with parental consent, for voluntary service (2013)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 370,790females age 16-49: 372,171 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 205,460females age 16-49: 212,277 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 17,639female: 17,865 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:4.3% of GDP (2011)country comparison to the world: 22Transnational Issues ::Guinea-BissauDisputes - international:in 2006, political instability within Senegal's Casamance region resulted in thousands of Senegalese refugees, cross-border raids, and arms smuggling into Guinea-BissauRefugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 7,700 (Senegal) (2012)Trafficking in persons:current situation: Guinea-Bissau is a country of origin and destination for children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the scope of the problem of trafficking women or men for forced labor or forced prostitution is unknown; boys reportedly are transported to southern Senegal for forced manual and agricultural labor; girls may be subjected to forced domestic service and child prostitution in Senegal and Guinea; both boys and girls are forced to work as street vendors in cities in Guinea-Bissau and Senegaltier rating: Tier 3 - the government of Guinea-Bissau does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; despite enacting an anti-trafficking law and finalizing and adopting a national action plan in 2011, authorities have not conducted any investigations or prosecutions of trafficking offenses; the government has not provided adequate protection to identified trafficking victims, conducted any tangible prevention activities in 2012, or made progress on the implementation of its national action plan (2013)Illicit drugs:increasingly important transit country for South American cocaine en route to Europe; enabling environment for trafficker operations thanks to pervasive corruption; archipelago-like geography around the capital facilitates drug smuggling"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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Guinea-Bissau — Guinea Bis|sau a small country in West Africa between Guinea and Senegal. Population: 1,316,000 (2001). Capital: Bissau. Guinea Bissau used to belong to Portugal … Dictionary of contemporary English
Guinea-Bissau — [gin′ēbi sou′] country in W Africa, on the coast between Guinea & Senegal: formerly a Portuguese territory, it became independent in 1973: 13,948 sq mi (36,125 sq km); pop. 777,000; cap. Bissau … English World dictionary
Guinea-Bissau — /gin ee bi sow /, n. a republic on the W coast of Africa, between Guinea and Senegal: formerly a Portuguese overseas province; gained independence in 1974. 1,178,584; 13,948 sq. mi. (36,125 sq. km). Cap.: Bissau. Formerly, Portuguese Guinea. * *… … Universalium
Guinea-Bissau — República da Guiné Bissau Republik Guinea Bissau … Deutsch Wikipedia
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Guinea-Bissau — Para otros usos del término Guinea, véase la página de desambiguación República da Guiné Bissau República de Guinea Bissau … Wikipedia Español
Guinea-Bissau — Infobox Country native name = pt. República da Guiné Bissau conventional long name = Republic of Guinea Bissau common name = Guinea Bissau demonym = Guinean symbol type = Emblem national motto = Unidade, Luta, Progresso spaces|2(Portuguese) Unity … Wikipedia
Guinea-Bissau — Gui|nea Bis|sạu [gi… ]; s: Staat in Westafrika. * * * Guinea Bissạu Kurzinformation: Fläche: 36 125 km2 Einwohner: (2000) 1,3 Mio. Hauptstadt: Bissau Amtssprac … Universal-Lexikon
Guinea-Bissáu — Para otros usos del término Guinea, véase la página de desambiguación Guinea Bissáu es un país del oeste de África, y uno de los países más pequeños del África Continental. Limita con Senegal al norte, y Guinea al sur y al este, y con el Océano… … Enciclopedia Universal
Guinea-Bissau — noun a republic on the northwestern coast of Africa; recognized as independent by Portugal in 1974 • Syn: ↑Republic of Guinea Bissau, ↑Guine Bissau, ↑Portuguese Guinea • Instance Hypernyms: ↑African country, ↑African nation … Useful english dictionary